Ubuntu Server modifications needed before FreeLCS installation
The FreeLCS installation instructions on the main user manual page describe
installation on Ubuntu Desktop. Ubuntu Desktop has a
graphical user interface and it is very user friendly. There is another
version of Ubuntu called Ubuntu server. It has no
graphical user interface and because of this it requires more Linux skills
than the desktop version. Instructions below assume you know your way around
the Ubuntu Server system.
The default Ubuntu Server installation has some small problems that will
prevent FreeLCS from working correctly. Locale may be broken and the font
that FreeLCS uses when printing the loudness history graphics file is not
installed by default. These problems can be easily corrected.
Fixing Ubuntu 12.04 and 14.04 Server locale
For Ubuntu 16.04 use the Debian
method described here.
Ubuntu Server locale is not configured correctly by default, this produces
error messages during program package installation and stops the FreeLCS
All following commands must be executed as root.
These next instructions fixes your locale if your language is Finnish (code:
fi). You can find language code for you language in the
Find the line that mentions you language code and UTF-8.
In my case the line is (my language is Finnish):
Copy the line and put it as the last line of the textfile: /var/lib/locales/supported.d/local
Next you need to take first part of the line above and compose two lines
text with it and add these lines at the end of the file: /etc/environment
In the case of Finnish language the two lines are:
Next run the command: dpkg-reconfigure locales
You need to log out and back in for the changes to take effect.
Fixing history graphics file fonts
Install liberation fonts: sudo apt-get install
Next create a link to the font that is used when FreeLCS creates history
FreeLCS on a computer without a graphical user interface
If your operating system is Debian, then you need to make some changes to
the system before FreeLCS installation. Instructions
If your operating system is Ubuntu Server, then you need to make some
changes to the system before FreeLCS installation. Instructions
Ubuntu Server does not have a graphical user interface and Debian can be
installed also without one. Computers with these version of Linux are most
likely servers running in a dedicated server room or virtualized in a server
farm. The only way to access these servers is usually with a ssh connection.
The advantage of a operating system without a GUI is that it uses very
little physical resources, for example Debian 7 without a GUI uses only 45
MB of Ram when it starts up.
FreeLCS installation requires a graphical user interface, but there are two
methods to install it on a "headless" server.
- You can install FreeLCS on a computer that has a graphical user
interface, make a backup of the installation and restore it on a
"headless" server. The restoration process can be done over ssh.
Instructions for this method are here.
- You can use X - forwarding over a ssh connection. This installation
method is described below.
Installing FreeLCS over ssh with X - forwarding
FreeLCS installation requires either a connection to the internet or access
to a local Debian / Ubuntu package repository.
This method requires two computers: one Linux or OS X machine with the X
windowing system installed (Desktop computer) and the
target server (server computer). When using this method the
installer runs on the "headless" server, but its windows
will appear on the Desktop computer.
- First make an ssh - connection from the Desktop
computer to the server with the following command
(replace the username with an actual username on the server and the ip
with the actual ip of the server):
- Now add the following line in the file: /etc/ssh/ssh_config
on the server:
- Now quit the ssh connection and create it again now using X -
ssh -X -C
-l username 192.168.1.1
- You might get the message ".Xauthority does not exist".
This is not an error, but an announcement telling that the file in
question did not exist and it is now created. Next time you make the
connection you should no longer see this message.
- The following commands are all executed on the server
over the ssh - connection.
- Update the package database. Installation may fail to fetch some
needed packages, if the package database is out of date.
sudo apt-get update
- Install programs needed during FreeLCS installation:
sudo apt-get -y
install python3 idle3 zip unzip
- Download FreeLCS installer. If a newer FreeLCS package is available
replace the name of the zip-file:
- Enter the unzipped archive directory:
Now after a few seconds the window of the installer program should appear on
the Desktop computer, even though the installer really
runs on the server. Now you can follow the Ubuntu
Desktop installation instructions.
security updates on Ubuntu Server and Debian
These instructions apply to Ubuntu Server and Debian.
If your operating system is Ubuntu Desktop, then you can
do the configuration more easily with graphical tools. Instructions
for Ubuntu Desktop are here.
The next intructions sets the operating system to install all security
All following instructions must be run as the root user.
- Install the software needed for automatic updates:
apt-get install unattended-upgrades
- Then you need to configure the software we installed:
- The configuration program will as if you want to install updates
automatically, answer "Yes".
- Then we need to change some settings, open the configfile
- On Ubuntu: Check that the following line is not
commented out. The characters // are used for commenting.
- (On Debian: Check that the following line is not
commented out. The characters // are used for commenting).
- Then we need to edit another text file, on Ubuntu
open the file to text editor with the following command:
nano -w /etc/apt/apt.conf.d/10periodic
- (On Debian open the file to text editor with the
- and add the following lines to the text file:
The settings we made define that the server will download and install
security updates daily. The downloaded installation packages are deleted
after 30 days.
When updates are installed then details about the installation are recorded
to log files in directory:
Now you can setup automatic
reboot once a week so that kernel updates are applied.
In this example we assing the static ip-address of 192.168.1.1
to the network interface eth0. The default gateway
to the internet is the computer at address: 192.168.1.200.
We use OpenDNS - service as our name servers (ip-addresses: 18.104.22.168,
22.214.171.124). You need to change these settings to correspond to your
Don't try to change network settings on a remote server through a ssh -
connection. There is always the possibility that something goes wrong and
you are not able to connect to the server anymore.
- Open the network interface configuration file to a text editor as
sudo nano -w /etc/network/interfaces
- First remove the line that says "iface eth0 inet dhcp"
and then add the following lines below it:
iface eth0 inet static
You may need to reboot the computer for the changes to take effect.